Making the TFE
1 Manufacturers of PTFE begin by synthesizing TFE. The three ingredients of TFE, fluorspar, hydrofluoric acid, and chloroform are combined in a chemical reaction chamber heated to between 1094-1652°F (590-900°C). The resultant gas is then cooled, and distilled to remove any impurities.
2 The reaction chamber is filled with purified water and a reaction agent or initiator, a chemical that will set off the formation of the polymer. The liquid TFE is piped into the reaction chamber. As the TFE meets the initiator, it begins to polymerize. The resulting PTFE forms solid grains that float to the surface of the water. As this is happening, the reaction chamber is mechanically shaken. The chemical reaction inside the chamber gives off heat, so the chamber is cooled by the circulation of cold water or another coolant in a jacket around its outsides. Controls automatically shut off the supply of TFE after a certain weight inside the chamber is reached. The water is drained out of the chamber, leaving a mess of stringy PTFE which looks somewhat like grated coconut.
3 Next, the PTFE is dried and fed into a mill. The mill pulverizes the PTFE with rotating blades, producing a material with the consistency of wheat flour. This fine powder is difficult to mold. It has "poor flow," meaning it cannot be processed easily in automatic equipment. Like unsifted wheat flour, it might have both lumps and air pockets. So manufacturers convert this fine powder into larger granules by a process called agglomeration. This can be done in several ways. One method is to mix the PTFE powder with a solvent such as acetone and tumble it in a rotating drum. The PTFE grains stick together, forming small pellets. The pellets are then dried in an oven.
4 The PTFE pellets can be molded into parts using a variety of techniques. However, PTFE may be sold in bulk already pre-molded into so-called billets, which are solid cylinders of PTFE. The billets may be 5 ft (1.5 m) tall. These can be cut into sheets or smaller blocks, for further molding. To form the billet, PTFE pellets are poured into a cylindrical stainless steel mold. The mold is loaded onto a hydraulic press, which is something like a large cabinet equipped with weighted ram. The ram drops down into the mold and exerts force on the PTFE. After a certain time period, the mold is removed from the press and the PTFE is unmolded. It is allowed to rest, then placed in an oven for a final step called sintering.
5 The molded PTFE is heated in the sintering oven for several hours, until it gradually reaches a temperature of around 680°F (360°C). This is above the melting point of PTFE. The PTFE particles coalesce and the material becomes gel-like. Then the PTFE is gradually cooled. The finished billet can be shipped to customers, who will slice or shave it into smaller pieces, for further processing.
6 Polymerization of PTFE by the dispersion method leads to either fine powder or a paste-like substance, which is more useful for coatings and finishes. TFE is introduced into a water-filled reactor along with the initiating chemical. Instead of being vigorously shaken, as in the suspension process, the reaction chamber is only agitated gently. The PTFE forms into tiny beads. Some of the water is removed, by filtering or by adding chemicals which cause the PTFE beads to settle. The result is a milky substance called PTFE dispersion. It can be used as a liquid, especially in applications like fabric finishes. Or it may be dried into a fine powder used to coat metal