Screw is the most important part of extruder, can be said to be the heart of the extruder, it can directly affect the application of the extruder and production efficiency. The performance of screw determines the productivity, plasticizing quality, dispersion of filler, melt temperature and power consumption of an extruder.
Screw is the most important part of extruder, can be said to be the heart of the extruder, it can directly affect the application of the extruder and production efficiency. The performance of screw determines the productivity, plasticizing quality, dispersion of filler, melt temperature and power consumption of an extruder. Through the screw rotation, the polymer plastic can be extruded, and the plastic can move, pressurize and obtain some heat from friction in the cylinder. During the movement of the cylinder, the plastic can be mixed and plasticized.
- 1.The screw structure of polymer plasticizing and mixing extruder.
During processing, when the material moves forward along the screw, it experiences changes in temperature, pressure, viscosity, etc., which are different within the full length range of the screw. There are three physical states of polymer plastic in extruder: glass state, high elastic state and viscous flow state. In order to adapt to the requirements of different states and according to the changing characteristics of the material, the screw can be divided into three sections: feed section, compress section and homogenize section. The function of the feeding section is to feed the material supplied by the hopper to the compression section. During the movement of the plastic, it generally remains a solid state and partially melts due to heat. The length of the feeding section varies with the type of plastic. Compression section (transfer section) is the role of physical material pressure, so that the material from solid into molten, well out of the air in the material; In order to adapt to the characteristics of reducing the volume when pushing the gas in the material back to the feeding section, pressing the material and melting the material, the screw in this section should produce greater shearing effect and compression of the plastic. The function of the homogenizing section (metering section) is to feed the molten material to the machine head at constant volume (volume) and pressure so that it is formed in the mouth mold. The volume of the spiral groove in the homogenizing section is the same as that in the feeding section.
In order to avoid material retention in the end of the screw head dead corner, causing decomposition, screw head is often designed into a cone or semicircle; Some screw homogenization section is – the surface is completely smooth body called torpedo head, but there are also engraved grooves or milling patterns. The torpedo head has the function of stirring and controlling the material, eliminating pulsating (pulsating) phenomenon in the flow, reducing the thickness of the material layer with increasing the pressure of the material, improving the heating condition, and further improving the screw plasticizing efficiency. According to melt transport theory, melt flows in the screw homogenization section in four forms, and the flow of molten material in the screw groove is a combination of these four flows: positive flow — plastic melt flows between the cylinder and the screw in the direction of the screw groove toward the machine head. Counter-current flow direction is opposite to the positive flow, which is caused by the pressure gradient caused by the resistance of the nose, porous plate and filter plate. The flow of the melt in a direction perpendicular to the thread wall affects the mixing and heat exchange of the melt during extrusion. Leakage flow – a backflow formed by the pressure gradient between the screw and the cylinder, along the axial direction of the screw. Different flow patterns have important effects on the mixing uniformity of polymers.
Screw diameter and the determination of structural form, mainly according to the production of product output, specifications, types of processed materials and various structural screw characteristics to determine. Generally, the feeding section of the screw has a deeper groove and the groove depth is unchanged, compression section (melt section) of the screw groove depth along the direction of discharge from the deep to shallow, metering section (homogenized section) of the screw has a shallow groove and the groove depth is unchanged.
- 2.The screw material.
Screw is the key part of extruder, as the material of screw must have high temperature resistance, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, high strength and other characteristics, at the same time should have good cutting performance, heat treatment residual stress, small thermal deformation and other characteristics. For extruder screw material, there are specific requirements as follows:
- (1).High mechanical properties. To have enough strength, to adapt to high temperature, high pressure working conditions, improve the service life of the screw.
- (2).Good machining performance. Good machining performance and heat treatment performance.
- (3).Good corrosion and wear resistance.
- (4).Easy to draw.
Post time: Jul-15-2019